This blog was originally started to better help me understand the technologies in the CCIE R&S blueprint; after completing the R&S track I have decided to transition the blog into a technology blog.
CCIE #29033

This blog will continue to include questions, troubleshooting scenarios, and references to existing and new technologies but will grow to include a variety of different platforms and technologies. Currently I have created over 185 questions/answers in regards to the CCIE R&S track!! Note: answers are in the comment field or within "Read More" section.

You can also follow me on twitter @FE80CC1E

Friday, April 30, 2010

Question 68

Can EIGRP determine the difference between internal and external routes?

Question 67

Can you create a stub in EIGRP?
Provide examples if possible.

Question 66

What does the "traffic-share" command do in EIGRP?

Question 65

Can you load balance across unequal paths in EIGRP?
Show an example.

Question 64

How many paths can EIGRP load balance by default?

Question 63

What are the EIGRP timers and default values?

Question 62

What command is used to change the metrics in EIGRP?

Question 61

What are EIGRP default metrics?

Question 60

Can you use portfast on a trunk?

Question 59

What are the spanning-tree phases?

Question 58

What are the ways spanning-tree paths can be manipulated?

Wednesday, April 28, 2010

Question 57

What are the benefits of BGP peer group?

Tuesday, April 27, 2010

Question 56

You have a Cisco device and non-Cisco device using frame-relay.
What is the mode that you would you use?
Provide examples using a physical interface, a frame-relay map, and a frame-relay interface-dlci.

Question 55

What does "no service config" do?

Question 54

When doing an auto-install over frame-relay what considerations need to be made?

Question 53

What do you need to be aware of when using Frame-relay back to back?

Question 52

When do you use the frame-relay interface-dlci command vs the frame-relay map statements?

Question 51

Do you need frame-relay maps for IPv6 and Bridging?
Provide examples if possible.

Question 50

When and where would you use frame-relay map statements?

Question 49

How do you disable inverse-arp per DLCI?

Question 48

Create a macro that modifies multiple interfaces with one command?

Question 47

Create a macro to configure a host port?

Question 46

How do you change the forward delay for an individual VLAN?

Question 45

What VLAN states are available and what is the default?
Show an example.

Question 44

How do you modify the max-age of a BPDU and what is its purpose?

Question 43

What ethertypes are used in a mac-address list?
Provide a few examples.

Question 42

What is DTE and DCE?

Question 41

What is RMON and why would you use it?

Question 40

What protocol would you use to send traps that are authenticated and encrypted?
Provide an example.

Question 39

What is SNMP and its major differences between versions?
Provide an example and restrict it to host

Monday, April 26, 2010

Question 38

What are the ether types that can be used with mac address-lists?

Question 37

What is TCL script and how do you use it?
Provide an example.

Question 36

How to copy a column in Secure CRT?
Example: You want to copy just the IP addresses from "show ip interface brief"

Sunday, April 25, 2010

Question 35

How do you enter a special character in a password?
vty line 0 4
password pass?word

Question 34

What protocol is an industry standard replacement of CDP?

Question 33

What is required when setting up a remote span?
Provide an example using 3 switches

Question 32

What does UDLD stand for and when would you use it?

Question 31

Can you provide a configuration example leveraging Private VLANs?
You must use all types.

Question 30

In order to use private VLANs what mode must VTP be in?

Question 29

What is used to reallocate memory usage on a switch?
You must describe each of the profiles.

Question 28

What types of storm control mechanisms are available on a switch?

Question 27

How can I prevent ARP based attacks?

Question 26

Why would one use DHCP snooping?

Question 25

What are flex links?

Question 24

What are the types of VTP modes available?

Question 23

What is DTP and how can you disable it?

Question 22

What protocol or protocols can be used to form an Etherchannel?

Question 21

What does "spanning-tree portfast" do?

Question 20

When do you use MQC and what does it stand for?

Question 19

Whats is FRTS and what does it help with?

Question 18

How is a FECN or BECN used?

Saturday, April 24, 2010

Free from INE

Couple of free Webinars from

IPv6 Multicast (1 Hour)

MPLS L3 VPN (Version 4 Challenge)

Question 17

When to use OER?

Question 16

What protocol can you use instead of using IGMP Snooping?

Question 15

What is SSM?

Friday, April 23, 2010

Question 14

What are the types of ways that you can migrate from IPv4 to IPv6?

Question 13

What does an IPv6 address layout look like?

Thursday, April 22, 2010

Question 12

What is RPF?

Question 11

What is IGMP?

Provide an example of its use.

Question 10

What is MRM and how do you use it?

Question 9

When to use MSDP?

Question 8

Why would you use the BGP listen command?

Question 7

What is VRF-lite (VPN routing/for forwarding)?

Question 6

What is BFD (Bidirectional Forwarding Detection)?

Wednesday, April 21, 2010

Test Lab

Starting this weekend I will be doing an 8 hour test lab to further identify areas of weakness. I will then start doing two 8 hour labs every single weekend until the big day in July.

I will be sharing my experiences during my test labs and I will also provide tips and tricks.

Feel free to share your experiences preparing for the LAB exam

Question 5

What are the different methods when creating Rendezvous Points?

Tuesday, April 20, 2010

Challenge 1

Create a complex network scenario that requires some level of troubleshooting.

Use GNS3 and post your .net file and create a trouble ticket.

Question 4

What are the differences between Dense and Sparse Modes?

Monday, April 19, 2010

Question 3

What are the BGP messages and neighbor states?

Question 2

What are the types of interfaces that can be used in Frame-Relay?

Question 1

How do you correctly advertise the loopback interface into OSPF using the correct mask?

Interface loopback address is

CCIE Journey

CCIE version 4 Blueprint
I will be reviewing each one of these topics and highlighting the topics in RED once complete. This should help identify any missing pieces.

1.0Implementing Layer 2 Technologies
Configuring and Troubleshooting Layer 2 Technologies
1.01Frame Relay
1.01.1Frame Relay Multipoint Links on a Physical Interface Using Inverse ARP
1.01.2Frame Relay Multipoint Links on a Physical Interface Without Using Inverse ARP
1.01.3.Frame Relay Multipoint Link on a Subinterface Using Inverse ARP
1.01.4.Frame Relay Multipoint Link on a Subinterface Without Using Inverse ARP
1.01.5.Frame Relay Point-to-Point Subinterfaces
1.01.6.PVC with a Multipoint Interface on One Side and a Subinterface on the Other Side
1.01.7.Authentication on a Frame Relay Link Using PPP
1.2Catalyst Configuration
1.2.01.Trunks Using an Industry-Standard Encapsulation
1.2.02.Trunks Using a Cisco Proprietary Encapsulation
1.2.03.Creating, Deleting, and Editing VLANs
1.2.04.VTP in Client/Server Mode
1.2.05.VTP in Transparent Mode
1.2.06.VTP Authentication
1.2.07.VTP Pruning
1.2.08.Controlling VLANs That Cross a Trunk
1.2.09.Optimizing STP by STP Timers
1.2.11.Loop Guard
1.2.12.BPDU Guard
1.2.13.BPDU Filters
1.2.17.Selecting the Root Bridge for VLANs in a PVST Environment
1.2.18.Selecting the Root Bridge for an MST Instance in an MST Environment
1.2.19.Setting the Port Priority to Designate the Forwarding Ports
1.2.20.EtherChannel Using an Industry-Standard Protocol
1.2.21.EtherChannel Using a Cisco Proprietary Protocol
1.2.22.Disabling Protocols on the EtherChannel
1.2.23.Load-Balancing Type on the EtherChannel
1.2.24.SNMP Management on the Switch
1.2.25.Telnet and SSH Management on the Switch
1.2.26.Controlling Inbound and Outbound Telnet on the Switch
1.2.27.Regular and Smart Macros
1.2.28.Switch Banners
1.2.30.Switch Virtual Interfaces (SVIs) for IP Routing
1.2.31.Router on a Stick
1.2.34.IP Routing on the Switch Using RIPv2, EIGRP, OSPF, and BGP
1.2.35.IP Phones to Connect to the Catalyst Switch
1.2.36.Dot1q Tunneling
1.3Other Layer 2 Technologies
1.3.3.PPP over Ethernet
2.0Implementing IPv4
Configuring and Troubleshooting IPv4
2.1.IPv4 Addressing
2.1.1.IPv4 Addressing
2.1.2.IPv4 Subnetting
2.1.3.IPv4 VLSM
2.2.01.OSPF on a Broadcast Multicast Access Network (Ethernet)
2.2.02.OSPF over a Frame Relay Multipoint Network by Changing Network Types
2.2.03.OSPF over a Frame Relay Multipoint Network by Using the neighbor Command
2.2.04.OSPF over a Frame Relay Point-to-Point Network
2.2.05.Virtual Links
2.2.06.Stub Areas
2.2.07.Totally Stubby Areas
2.2.08.NSSA Areas
2.2.09.NSSA and Stub Areas
2.2.10.NSSA and Totally Stubby Areas
2.3.1.Basic EIGRP
2.3.2.Passive Interfaces
2.3.3.EIGRP Stub on Routers and Switches
2.3.4.EIGRP Update—Bandwidth Control
2.3.5.Changing the Administrative Distance of EIGRP
2.3.6.Unequal-Cost Load Balancing for EIGRP
2.4.Filtering, Redistribution, and Summarization
2.4.01.Route Filtering for OSPF Within the Area Using a Distribute List with an ACL and Prefix Lists
2.4.02.Route Filtering for OSPF Between Areas
2.4.03.Summarization of OSPF Routes Between Areas
2.4.04.Summarization of External Routers Within OSPF
2.4.05.Filtering with a Distribute List Using an ACL and Prefix Lists
2.4.06.Using Advanced ACLs and a Prefix List for Filtering Routes
2.4.07.Summarizing Routes with EIGRP
2.4.08.Route Summarization for RIP
2.4.09.Redistribution Between OSPF and EIGRP
2.4.10.Redistribution Between RIP and EIGRP
2.4.11.Redistribution of Directly Connected Routes
2.4.12.Redistribution of Static Routes
2.4.13.Redistribution with Filtering Using ACLs and Prefix Lists
2.4.14.Redistribution with Filtering Using Route Tagging
2.5.1.IBGP Peering
2.5.2.Advertising Routes in BGP
2.5.3.Next-Hop Attribute
2.5.4.Route Reflectors
2.5.5.Redundancy by Neighbor Relationships Based on Loopbacks
2.6.1.EBGP Peering
2.6.2.EBGP Peering Based on Loopbacks
2.7.BGP Advanced Features
2.7.01.Filtering Using ACLs
2.7.02.Filtering Using Prefix Lists
2.7.03.Filtering Using AS Path Filters
2.7.04.Redistributing Connected Routes into BGP
2.7.05.Redistributing Dynamic Routing Protocols into BGP
2.7.06.BGP Aggregation
2.7.07.BGP Aggregation with the Summary Only Parameter
2.7.08.BGP Aggregation with Suppress Maps
2.7.09.BGP Aggregation with Unsuppress Maps
2.7.10.BGP Best-Path Selection – Weight
2.7.11.BGP Best-Path Selection – Local Preference
2.7.12.BGP Best-Path Selection – MED
2.7.13.BGP Communities – No-Export
2.7.14.BGP Communities – No-Advertise
2.7.15.BGP Confederation
2.7.16.BGP Local AS
2.7.17.Working with Private AS Numbers
2.7.18.Route Dampening
2.7.19.Conditional Advertising
2.7.20.Peer Groups
3.0Implementing IPv6
Configuring and Troubleshooting IPv6
3.1.1.IPv6 Addresses
3.1.4.IPv6 Tunneling
3.1.5.IPv6 on a Frame Relay Network – Multipoint
3.1.6.IPv6 on a Frame Relay Network – Point-to-Point
3.1.7.Route Filtering with a Distribute List Using an ACL and Prefix Lists
3.1.8.Route Redistribution Between OSPFv3 and EIGRPv6
4.0Implementing MPLS
Configuring and Troubleshooting MPLS
4.1.MPLS Unicast Routing
4.1.1.MPLS Unicast Routing Using LDP
4.1.2.Controlling Label Distribution
4.2.1.MPLS VPN Using Static Routing Between PE-CE
4.2.2.MPLS VPN Using EIGRP as the PE-CE Routing Protocol
4.2.3.MPLS VPN Using OSPF as the PE-CE Routing Protocol
4.2.4.MPLS VPN Using EBGP as the PE-CE Routing Protocol
4.2.5.Controlling Route Propagation Using the Route Target with Import and Export Maps
4.3.1.VRFs at the Customer Sites Using VRF-Lite
5.0Implementing IP Multicast
Configuring and Troubleshooting IP Multicast
5.1.PIM and Bidirectional PIM
5.1.1.PIM Dense Mode
5.1.2.PIM on an NMBA Network
5.1.3.PIM Sparse Mode – Static Rendezvous Point
5.1.4.PIM Sparse Mode – Multiple Static Rendezvous Points
5.1.5.PIM Sparse Mode – Auto Rendezvous Point
5.1.6.PIM Sparse Mode with Multiple Rendezvous Points Using the Auto Rendezvous Point
5.1.7.Bidirectional PIM
5.2.2.MSDP to an Anycast Rendezvous Point
5.3.Multicast Tools
5.3.1.Multicast Rate Limiting
5.3.2.IGMP Filtering on the Switch
5.3.3.Use of the Switch to Block Multicast Traffic
5.3.4.Multicasting Through a GRE Tunnel
5.3.5.Multicast Helper Address
5.4.IPv6 Multicast
5.4.1.IPv6 Multicast Routing Using PIM
5.4.2.IPv6 Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) Protocol
6.0Implementing Network Security
Configuring and Troubleshooting Network Security
6.1.AAA and Security Server Protocols
6.1.1.Use of a Router to Authenticate Against a AAA Server Using TACACS+
6.1.2.Use of a Router to Authenticate Against a AAA Server Using RADIUS
6.1.3.Local Privilege Authorization
6.1.4.Accounting to a AAA Server Using TACACS+
6.1.5.Accounting to a AAA Server Using RADIUS
6.2.Access Lists
6.2.1.Standard Access Lists
6.2.2.Extended Access Lists
6.2.3.Time-Based Access Lists
6.2.4.Reflexive Access Lists
6.3.Routing Protocol Security
6.3.1.Routing Protocol Authentication for EIGRP
6.3.2.Routing Protocol Authentication for OSPF – Area-Wide
6.3.3.Routing Protocol Authentication for OSPF – Interface-Specific
6.3.4.Routing Protocol Authentication for OSPF Virtual Links
6.3.5.Routing Protocol Authentication for BGP
6.4.Catalyst Security
6.4.1.Storm Control
6.4.2.Switch Port Security
6.4.3.Dot1x Authentication
6.4.4.Dot1x Authentication for VLAN Assignment
6.4.5.VLAN Access Maps
6.4.6.DHCP Snooping
6.4.8.IP Source Guard
6.4.9.Private VLANs
6.5.Cisco IOS and Zone-Based Firewalls
6.5.1.Basic Cisco IOS Firewall
6.5.2.DoS Protection on a Cisco IOS Firewall
6.5.3.Basic Zone-Based Firewall
6.5.4.Zone-Based Firewall with Deep Packet Inspection
6.6.1.Dynamic NAT
6.6.3.Static NAT
6.6.4.Static PAT
6.6.5.Policy-Based NAT
6.7.Other Security Features
6.7.1.Configuring the TCP Intercept Feature
6.7.2.Configuring Blocking of Fragment Attacks
6.7.3.Configuring Switch Security Features
6.7.4.Configuring Antispoofing Using an ACL
6.7.5.Configuring Antispoofing Using uRPF
6.7.6.SSH on Routers and Switches
6.7.7.Cisco IOS IPS
6.7.8.Controlling Telnet and SSH Access to the Router and Switch
7.0Implementing Network Services
Configuring and Troubleshooting Network Services
7.1.1.Configuring DHCP on a Cisco IOS Router
7.1.2.Configuring DHCP on a Switch
7.1.3.Using a Router and a Switch to Act as a DHCP Relay Agent (Helper Address)
7.2.1.HSRP Between Two Routers
7.2.2.Pre-empt for HSRP
7.2.3.Authentication for HSRP
7.3.IP Services
7.3.1.Use of the Router for WCCP
7.3.2.Use of the Router to Generate an Exception Dump Using TFTP
7.3.3.Use of the Router to Generate an Exception Dump Using FTP
7.3.4.Use of the Router to Generate an Exception Dump Using RCP
7.3.5.Broadcast Forwarding for Protocols
7.4.System Management
7.4.1.Telnet Management on the Router and Switch
7.4.2.SSH Management on the Router and Switch
7.4.3.Disabling Telnet and the SSH Client on the Switch
7.4.4.HTTP Management on the Router and Switch
7.4.5.Controlling HTTP Management on the Router and Switch
7.5.1.NTP Using the NTP Master and NTP Server Commands
7.5.2.NTP Without Using the NTP Server
7.5.3.NTP Using NTP Broadcast Commands
8.0Implementing QoS
Configuring and Troubleshooting QoS
8.1.1.Marking Using DSCP
8.1.2.Marking Using IP Precedence
8.1.3.Marking Using CoS
8.2.Congestion Management and Congestion Avoidance
8.2.1.Priority Queuing
8.2.2.Custom Queuing
8.2.3.Weighted Fair Queuing
8.3.Policing and Shaping
8.3.1.CAR Using Rate Limiting Under the Interface
8.3.2.Frame Relay Traffic Shaping Using Map Classes
8.3.3.Discard Eligible List
8.4.Link Efficiency Mechanisms
8.4.2.Link Fragmentation and Interleaving (LFI) for Frame Relay
8.5.Modular QoS CLI
8.5.2.Class-Based Weighted Fair Queuing (CB-WFQ)
8.5.3.Low Latency Queuing (LLQ)
8.5.4.Shaping Using MQC
8.5.5.Random Early Detection Using MQC
8.5.6.WRED Using MQC
8.5.7.Using NBAR for QoS
8.5.8.Discard Eligible Marking Using MQC
8.6.Catalyst QoS
8.6.1.WRR on the Catalyst Switch
9.0Troubleshooting a Network
Troubleshooting Network-Wide Connectivity Issues
9.1.Troubleshooting Layer 2 Problems
9.1.1.Troubleshooting Catalyst Switch Network Issues
9.1.2.Troubleshooting Frame Relay Network Issues
9.2.Troubleshooting Layer 3 Problems
9.2.1.Troubleshooting IP Addressing Network Issues
9.2.2.Troubleshooting Routing Protocol Network Issues
9.2.3.Troubleshooting Routing Protocol Loop Issues
9.3.Troubleshooting Application Problems
9.3.1.Determining Which Aspects of the Network to Troubleshoot to Determine Network Functionality (Given a Set of Symptoms)
9.4.Troubleshooting Network Services
9.4.1.Troubleshooting Misconfigured NTP Setup
9.4.2.Troubleshooting Misconfigured DHCP Setup
9.4.3.Troubleshooting Misconfigured Telnet and SSH Setup
9.4.4.Troubleshooting Misconfigured SNMP Setup
9.5.Troubleshooting Security Services
9.5.1.Troubleshooting Misconfigured ACLs
9.5.2.Troubleshooting Misconfigured NAT
9.5.3.Troubleshooting Misconfigured AAA Services
10.0Optimizing a Network
Configuring and Troubleshooting Optimization of a Network
10.1.Logging In
10.1.1.Logging into a Remote Syslog Server
10.1.2.Logging into the Internal Buffer
10.2.1.Use of a Router to Communicate to an SNMP Management Station
10.2.2.Use of a Router to Generate SNMP Traps
10.3.1.Use of a Router to Generate SNMP Traps Using RMON
10.4.1.IP Accounting
10.5.1.IP SLA
10.6.Implementing Network Services on the Routers
10.6.1.Use of a Router as an FTP Server
10.6.2.Use of a Router as a TFTP Server
10.6.3.Cisco IOS Embedded Event Manager
10.6.5.HTTP and HTTPS on a Router
10.6.6.Telnet on a Router
10.6.7.Implementing Secure Copy Protocol (SCP) on a Router